Grammar 2: Full Course + Exercises – PDF S2

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Table of Contents

    Presentation over Grammar 2


    This summary describes the four categories of verb tense (simple, perfect, progressive, and perfect progressive) and how present, past, and future function within each category.

    Learning Objective: To define the four categories of verb tense.

    The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or state of being that is expressed by the verb. Each of the six tenses has a basic form. All basic forms are derived from the principal parts: present (base), present participle (be verb plus -ing), past (-ed), and past participle (-en plus have, had, has). Using the correct tense of verbs when you speak and write is essential to understanding in what time period actions took place.

    There are four categories of verb tenses: simple, perfect, progressive, and perfect progressive, with a version of the present, past, and future in each category. Each tense has its own meaning. When the actions take place (completed, ongoing, continuing into the future, has yet to occur) determines which tense to use

    The Passive Voice

    Let’s look at this sentence: I drank two cups of coffee.

    This is an active sentence and it has the subject first (the person or thing that does the verb), followed by the verb, and finally the object (the person or thing that the action happens to). So, in this example, the subject is ‘I’, the verb is ‘drank’ and the object is ‘two cups of coffee’. But, we don’t always need to make sentences this way. We might want to put the object first, or perhaps we don’t want to say who did something. This can happen for lots of reasons (see the explanation further down the page). In this case, we can use a passive, which puts the object first:

    Tense Active Passive

    present simple I make a cake. A cake is made (by me).
    present continuous I am making a cake. A cake is being made (by me).
    past simple I made a cake. A cake was made (by me).
    past continuous I was making a cake. A cake was being made(by me).
    present perfect I have made a cake. A cake has been made (by me).
    present perfect continuous
    I have been making a cake.
    A cake has been being made (by me).
    past perfect I had made a cake. A cake had been made (by me)

    Reported Speech

    In reported speech (also called indirect speech) we report what was said. The most common verbs used for this are say, tell, ask, explain, even think, etc, and ones met at higher levels would include suggest, hint, boast, demand, insist, etc. We could repeat the speaker’s words (direct speech) where these are important, or for drama or immediacy:

    He said, “Let’s get the hell out of here!”
    But normally we use reported speech, and this allows us to colour the utterance somewhat:
    He said it might be a good idea to vacate the premises.
    However, there are structure rules which generally apply.

    When we use reported speech, we either report:

    a . statements
    b. questions: W/h questions; Yes/no questions
    c. requests/ commands

    Download Grammar 2 Lessons PDF

    Modal verbs



    The Passive Voice

    The passive

    Relative clauses

    Relative clauses

    Reported Speech

    Reported Speech

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